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Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control in VLSI Manufacturing

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Chapter 1

Introduction

1-1

 

 

 

Chapter 2

Executive Summary

2-1

 

 

 

Chapter 3

Metrology/Inspection Technologies

3-1

 

 

 

3.1

Introduction

3-1

3.2 

Imaging Techniques

3-5

3.2.1 

Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

3-6

3.2.2 

Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)

3-7

3.3 

Scanning Probe Microscopes

3-10

3.3.1 

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

3-10

3.3.2 

Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM)

3-16

3.3.3 

Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM)

3-20

3.3.4 

AFM Types

3-20

3.3.4.1

Contact AFM

3-23

3.3.4.2

Dynamic Force Mode AFM Techniques

3-26

3.3.5 

Scanning Surface Potential Microscopy (SSPM)

3-29

3.4

Optical Techniques

3-31

3.4.1 

Scatterometry

3-32

3.4.1.1

Ellipsometry

3-34

3.4.1.2

Reflectometry

3-37

3.4.1.3

Scatterometry Developments

3-39

3.4.2

Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF)

3-41

3.4.3

Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDX)

3-44

3.4.4

Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS)

3-45

3.4.4.1

Surface Imaging Using SIMS

3-47

3.4.4.2

SIMS Depth Profiling

3-47

3.4.5 

Auger Electron Spectroscopy

3-49

3.4.6 

Focused Ion Beam (FIB)

3-53

3.4.7 

X-Ray Reflectometry (XRR)

3-57

3.4.8 

X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)

3-59

3.4.9 

Rutherford Backscattering (RBS)

3-61

3.4.10

Optical Acoustics Metrology

3-63

3.4.11

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)

3-65

3.4.12

IDS 10000

3-65

3.4.13

Thermally-Induced Voltage Alteration (TIVA)

3-66

3.5

Film Thickness And Roughness

3-68

3.5.1

Surface Inspection Technology

3-68

3.5.2

Dimensional Technology

3-70

3.5.3

Stylus Profilometer

3-70

 

 

 

Chapter 4

Defect Review/Wafer Inspection

4-1

 

 

 

4.1

Introduction

4-1

4.2

Defect Review

4-2

4.2.1

SEM Defect Review

4-3

4.2.2

Optical Defect Review

4-5

4.2.3

Other Defect Review

4-6

4.3

Patterned Wafer Inspection

4-9

4.3.1

E-Beam Patterned Wafer Inspection

4-9

4.3.2

Optical Patterned Wafer Inspection

4-10

4.4

Unpatterned Wafer Inspection

4-13

 

 

 

Chapter 5

Thin Film Metrology

 

 

 

 

5.1

Introduction

5-1

5.1.1

Front End Applications

5-1

5.1.2

Back End Applications

5-2

5.2

Metal Thin-Film Metrology

5-3

5.3

Non-Metal Thin-Film Metrology

5-9

5.4

Substrate Metrology

5-25

 

 

 

Chapter 6

Lithography Metrology

6-1

 

 

 

6.1

Overlay

6-1

6.2

CD

6-6

6.3

Mask (Reticle) Metrology/Inspection

6-24

 

 

 

Chapter 7

Market Forecast

7-1

 

 

 

7.1

Introduction

7-1

7.2

Market Forecast Assumptions

7-3

7.3

Market Forecast

7-4

7.3.1

Total Process Control Market Forecast

7-4

7.3.2

Lithography Metrology Market Forecast

7-10

7.3.2.1

Overlay Market Forecast

7-13

7.3.2.2

CD Measurement Market Forecast

7-16

7.3.2.3

Mask Inspection Market Forecast

7-19

7.3.2.4

Mask Metrology Market Forecast

7-22

7.3.3

Wafer Inspection / Defect Review Market

7-25

7.3.3.1

Patterned Wafer Inspection Market Forecast

7-28

o

E-Beam Patterned Wafer Inspection Market Forecast

7-31

o

Optical Patterned Wafer Inspection Market Forecast

7-34

7.3.3.2

Defect Review Market Forecast

7-37

o

SEM Defect Review Market Forecast

7-40

o

Optical Defect Review Market Forecast

7-43

o

Other Defect Review Market Forecast

7-46

7.3.3.3

Unpatterned Wafer Inspection Market Forecast

7-49

7.3.3.4

Macro Defect Detection Market Forecast

7-52

7.3.4

Thin Film Metrology Market Forecast

7-55

7.3.4.1

Non-Metal Thin Film Metrology Market Forecast

7-58

o

Non-Metal Standalone Thin Film Metrology Market Forecast

7-62

o

Non-Metal Integrated Thin Film Metrology Market Forecast

7-64

7.3.4.2

Substrate / Other Thin Film Metrology Market Forecast

7-67

7.3.5

Other Process Control Systems Market Forecast

7-70

 

 

 

Chapter 8

Integrated/In-Situ Metrology/Inspection Trends

8-1

 

 

 

8.1

Introduction

8-1

8.2 

In-Situ Metrology

8-1

8.3

Integrated Metrology

8-6

8.3.1 

Benefits

8-12

8.3.2 

Limitations

8-14

 

 

 

Chapter 9

Key Drivers

9-1

 

 

 

9.1

300mm Wafers

9-1

9.2

Copper Metrology

9-4

9.3

Low-K Dielectrics

9-8

9.4

Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP)

9-10

9.5

Ion Implant

9-23

 

 

 

 

TABLES

 

 

 

 

3.1

Comparison Of Derivative AFM Techniques

3-19

5.1

Comparison Of White-Light With Multiple-Angle Laser Ellipsometry

5-15

7.1 

Total Process Control Market Forecast

7-5

7.2 

Lithography Metrology Market Forecast

7-11

7.3 

Overlay Market Forecast

7-14

7.4 

CD Measurement Market Forecast

7-17

7.5 

Mask Inspection Market Forecast

7-20

7.6 

Mask Metrology Market Forecast

7-23

7.7 

Wafer Inspection / Defect Review Market Forecast

7-26

7.8 

Patterned Wafer Inspection Market Forecast

7-29

7.9 

E-Beam Patterned Wafer Inspection Market Forecast

7-32

7.10 

Optical Patterned Wafer Inspection Market Forecast

7-35

7.11 

Defect Review Market Forecast

7-38

7.12 

SEM Defect Review Market Forecast

7-41

7.13 

Optical Defect Review Market Forecast

7-44

7.14 

Other Defect Review Market Forecast

7-47

7.15 

Unpatterned Wafer Inspection Market Forecast

7-50

7.16 

Macro Defect Detection Market Forecast

7-53

7.17 

Thin Film Metrology Market Forecast

7-56

7.18 

Non-Metal Thin Film Metrology Market Forecast

7-59

7.19 

Non-Metal Standalone Thin Film Metrology Market Forecast

7-62

7.20 

Non-Metal Integrated Thin Film Metrology Market Forecast

7-65

7.21 

Substrate / Other Thin Film Metrology Market Forecast

7-68

7.22 

Other Process Control Systems Market Forecast

7-71

9.1

Dielectric Film Challenges

9-9

 

 

 

 

FIGURES

 

 

 

 

3.1

Schematic Of Scanning Electron Microscope

3-8

3.2

Schematic Of Transmission Electron Microscope

3-11

3.3

Schematic Of Atomic Force Microscopy

3-13

3.5

Interaction Between Two Atoms In AFM

3-22

3.6

Schematic Of Lateral Force Microscopy

3-25

3.7

Schematic Of Dynamic Force Mode AFM

3-27

3.8

Schematic Of Scanning Surface Potential Microscopy

3-30

3.9

Principle Of Scatterometry

3-33

3.10

Schematic Of Ellipsometer

3-35

3.11

Principles Of CD Scatterometry

3-40

3.12

Conventional TXRF Analysis Geometry

3-42

3.13

Schematic Of Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

3-46

3.14

Principle Of Auger Electron Emission

3-50

3.15

Schematic Of Auger Electron Spectroscopy

3-51

3.16

Schematic Of Focused Ion Beam Technology

3-54

3.17

Schematic Of X-Ray Reflectometry

3-58

3.18

Schematic Of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

3-60

3.19

Schematic Of Rutherford Backscattering

3-62

3.20

Schematic Of Optical Acoustics Metrology

3-64

3.21

Spatial Wavelength Of Nanotopography

3-69

3.22

Schematic Of Non-Contact Capacitive Gauging

3-71

3.23

Schematic Of Stylus Profilometer

3-72

5.1

Thin Film Metrology Challenges

5-10

5.2

Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Diagram

5-17

6.1

ITRS Overlay Technology Roadmap

6-3

6.2

NIST Line Edge Roughness Model

6-11

6.3

ITRS Metrology Roadmap

6-15

6.4

Schematic Of OCD Optics

6-19

6.5

Microlithography Process And Measurements

6-25

7.1 

Total Process Control Market Forecast

7-6

7.2

Total Process Control Market By Geographic Region

7-8

7.3

Total Process Control Market Vs. Overall Equipment Market

7-9

7.4 

Lithography Metrology Market Shares

7-12

7.5 

Overlay Market Shares

7-15

7.6 

CD Measurement Market Shares

7-18

7.7 

Mask Inspection Market Shares

7-21

7.8 

Mask Metrology Market Shares

7-24

7.9 

Wafer Inspection / Defect Review Market Shares

7-27

7.10

Patterned Wafer Inspection Market Shares

7-30

7.11

E-Beam Patterned Wafer Inspection Market Shares

7-33

7.12 

Optical Patterned Wafer Inspection Market Shares

7-36

7.13 

Defect Review Market Shares

7-39

7.14 

SEM Defect Review Market Shares

7-42

7.15 

Optical Defect Review Market Shares

7-45

7.16 

Other Defect Review Market Shares

7-48

7.17 

Unpatterned Wafer Inspection Market Shares

7-51

7.18 

Macro Defect Detection Market Shares

7-54

7.19 

Thin Film Metrology Market Shares

7-57

7.20 

Non-Metal Thin Film Metrology Market Shares

7-60

7.21 

Non-Metal Standalone Thin Film Metrology Market Shares

7-63

7.22 

Non-Metal Integrated Thin Film Metrology Market Shares

7-66

7.23 

Substrate / Other Thin Film Metrology Market Shares

7-69

7.24 

Other Process Control Systems Market Shares

7-72

8.1

Integrated Control In A Fab

8-7

9.1

Polish Endpoint Control

9-21