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Mask Making, Inspection, & Repair:

Market Analysis and Strategic Issues

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Chapter 1 

Introduction

1-1

 

 

 

1.1 

The Need For This Report

1-1

 

 

 

Chapter 2 

Executive Summary

2-1

 

 

 

2.1 

Summary of Major Issues

2-1

2.2 

Summary of Market Opportunities  

2-3

 

 

 

Chapter 3 

Technology Issues

3-1

 

 

 

3.1 

Mask Making  

3-1

3.1.1 

Mask Blanks

3-1

3.1.2 

Completed Masks 

3-4

3.2 

Mask Making Equipment  

3-18

3.2.1 

Electron Beam Systems

3-18

3.2.2 

Laser Pattern Generators  

3-24

3.3 

Mask Inspection   

3-30

3.3.1

Mask Defects

3-36

o

Transmission Variations

3-36

o

Transparent Defects

3-36

o

Nuisance Defects

3-37

o

CD Variations

3-37

o

Reflectivity Variations

3-38

3.4 

Mask Repair  

3-40

3.4.1 

Laser Repair

3-43

3.4.2 

Focused Ion Beam Repair   

3-44

3.4.3

Other Repair Methods

3-48

 

 

 

Chapter 4 

User - Vendor Strategies   

4-1

 

 

 

4.1 

Establishing User Needs

4-1

4.1.1 

Mask Making - Merchant or Captive   

4-1

4.1.2 

Submicron Mask Making Equipment - Laser vs E-Beam

4-5

4.1.3 

Mask Inspection Equipment 

4-6

4.1.4 

Mask Repair - Laser vs FIB

4-7

4.1.5

Phase-Shift Masks

4-10

4.1.6 

Optical Proximity Correction

4-21

4.1.7

NGL Technology Challenges

4-24

4.1.7.1

X-Ray Masks

4-31

4.1.7.2

EPL Masks

4-39

4.1.7.3

EUVL Masks

4-40

4.2 

Competitive Vendor Strategies

4-41

 

 

 

Chapter 5 

Market Forecast 

5-1

 

 

 

5.1 

Driving Forces

5-1

5.1.1

Introduction

5-1

5.1.2

Trends in IC Processing Technology

5-5

5.1.3

Mask and Reticle Requirements  

5-9

5.1.4 

Fast Turnaround Devices   

5-9

5.1.5 

Impact of Direct Write E-Beam and X-Ray  

5-17

5.2 

Market Forecast Assumptions 

5-18

5.3 

Mask Making, Inspection, and Repair   

5-19

5.3.1 

Completed Mask Market

5-19

5.3.2 

Reticle/Mask Manufacturing Equipment

5-34

 

 

 

 

LIST OF FIGURES

 

 

 

 

3.1 

Light Transmittance of Glasses   

3-2

3.2 

Photomask Fabrication Flow  

3-7

3.3 

Optical Photomask Fabrication Flow

3-8

3.4 

SCAPLEL Photomask Fabrication Flow

3-9

3.5 

MaskRigger Software in a Mask Fabrication Process 

3-21

3.6 

Schematic of a Laser Pattern Generator

3-25

3.7

Mulith Reference Distribution Aerial Image Formation

3-29

3.8 

Die-to-Die and Die-to-Database Inspection  

3-31

3.9

Defect Inspection Practices

3-32

3.10

Percentage of Yield Losses

3-39

3.11

Yield for Binary Masks

3-41

3.12

Yield for PSM Masks

3-42

3.13

Schematic of a Focused Ion Beam System

3-45

3.14

Illustration of Clear and Opaque Mask Repair

3-47

4.1 

Throughput of Alta 3000 Laser Versus Alta 3000 HT Systems

4-5

4.2

Subwavelength Gap

4-12

4.3

Lithography Requirements

4-14

4.4

Phase-Shifting Masks

4-15

4.5

iN Phase Mask Design

4-18

4.6

Illustration of OPC

4-22

4.7

Main NGL Mask Formats

4-26

4.8

Mask Costs Versus Feature Size

4-36

5.1

Production Costs for Maskmaking

5-11

5.2

Capital Expenditures and Revenues

5-12

5.3

Photomask Functionality

5-13

5.4 

Worldwide Merchant Mask Making Market Shares

5-26

5.5 

North American Merchant Mask Making Market Shares

5-27

5.6 

European Merchant Mask Making Market Shares

5-28

5.7 

Pacific Rim Merchant Mask Making Market Shares

5-29

5.8

Japan Merchant Mask Making Market Shares

5-30

5.9

Worldwide Mask Making Equipment Market Shares

5-38

 

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

 

 

 

 

4.1 

FIB and Laser Repair Comparison  

4-8

4.3

NGL Mask Formats

4-35

4.4

Cost of Reticle/X-Ray Mask

4-41

4.5

Phase Shift Mask and X-Ray Mask Manufacturing

4-44

5.1 

Overall Roadmap of Technology Characteristics

5-6

5.2 

Roadmap of Mask Inspection

5-7

5.3

IC Lithographic Requirements

5-8

5.4 

Increasing Mask COmplexity

5-10

5.5

Worldwide Mask Making Market by Feature Size

5-24

5.6

Captive Mask Shops

5-32

5.7

Worldwide Mask Making Equipment Market Forecast

5-36

5.8

Worldwide Mask Making Equipment Market Shares

5-37

5.9  

Mask Inspection Market Forecast

5-40