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LCD Market:

Technology Directions and Market Analysis

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Chapter 1

Introduction

1-1

 

 

 

Chapter 2

Executive Summary

2-1

 

 

 

2.1

Introduction

2-1

2.2

Market Opportunities

2-3

 

 

 

Chapter 3

Profiles of Japanese Companies

3-1

 

 

 

3.1

Equipment Manufacturers

3-1

3.2

Material Manufacturers

3-14

3.3

LCD Manufacturers

3-23

 

 

 

Chapter 4

Profiles of US Companies

4-1

 

 

 

4.1

Equipment Manufacturers

4-1

4.2

Material Manufacturers

4-11

4.3

LCD Manufacturers

4-13

 

 

 

Chapter 5

Profiles of ROW Companies

5-1

 

 

 

5.1

Equipment Manufacturers

5-1

5.2

Material Manufacturers

5-5

5.3

LCD Manufacturers

5-8

 

 

 

Chapter 6

The AMLCD Factory

6-1

 

 

 

6.1

Factory Logistics

6-1

6.1.1 

Investment Needs

6-1

6.1.2 

Capacity

6-6

6.1.3 

Plant Size

6-8

6.2

Cleanrooms

6-9

6.3

Automation

6-13

6.4

Active Matrix LCD Production Trends

6-16

6.4.1 

TFT - a-Si

6-17

6.4.2 

TFT - Polysilicon

6-27

6.4.3

MIM LCD

6-32

6.4.4

Reflective Arrays

6-33

6.5

Passive Matrix LCD Production Trends

6-34

6.5.1 

TN LCDs

6-34

6.5.2 

STN LCDs

6-37

6.5.3 

VAN LCDs

6-39

6.5.4 

Ferroelectric LCDs

6-40

6.6

New Approaches

6-45

6.6.1

LCD Monitors

6-47

6.6.2

Plastic LCDs

6-59

 

 

 

Chapter 7

Equipment Requirements and Trends

7-1

 

 

 

7.1

Microlithography

7-1

7.1.1  

Proximity Printing

7-1

7.1.2 

Scanning Projection

7-2

7.1.3 

Step-and-Repeat

7-3

o 

Image Field Stitching

7-7

o 

Overlay

7-7

7.2

Deposition

7-8

7.2.1 

CVD

7-8

7.2.2 

Sputtering

7-13

7.3

Rapid Thermal Processing

7-15

7.4

Etch/Strip/Clean

7-17

7.4.1 

Etching

7-17

o 

Plasma Etching

7-17

o 

Wet Chemical Etching

7-19

7.4.2 

Photoresist Stripping

7-21

7.4.3 

Cleaning

7-24

7.5

Inspection Systems

7-27

7.6

Test Systems

7-28

7.6.1 

Technology Capabilities

7-28

o 

Voltage/Capacitance Imaging

7-29

o 

Ohmic/Continuity Test

7-29

o 

Charge Sensing

7-29

o 

Forward Admittance Sensing

7-30

o 

E-Beam Test

7-30

7.6.2 

Yield Improvements

7-31

7.7

Repair

7-33

 

 

 

Chapter 8

Material Requirements and Trends

8-1

 

 

 

8.1

Substrates

8-1

8.1.1 

Material Types

8-1

8.1.2 

Quality Issues

8-2

8.1.3 

Trends

8-4

o 

Larger Substrates

8-4

o 

Thinner Substrates

8-7

o 

Better Surface

8-7

o 

Higher Temperature Capability

8-8

o 

Manufacturers

8-8

8.2

Liquid Crystals

8-10

8.2.1 

Introduction   

8-10

8.2.2 

New Polar Materials

8-12

8.2.3 

Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals

8-12

8.2.4 

OLEDs

8-13

8.2.5

Light-Emitting Polymers

8-14

8.3

Alignment Layer

8-25

8.3.1 

Material Properties

8-25

8.3.2 

Material Trends

8-28

8.4

Color Filters

8-28

8.4.1 

Materials

8-28

8.5

Polarizer Films

8-32

8.5.1 

Material Properties and Trends

8-32

 

 

 

Chapter 9

Market Forecast

9-1

 

 

 

9.1

Getting To Market

9-1

9.2

Market Forecast Assumptions

9-6

9.3

LCD Market Forecast

9-7

9.4

Equipment Market Forecast and Trends

9-29

9.4.1 

Lithography

9-29

9.4.2 

Plasma Etching and Stripping

9-32

9.4.3 

Thin Film Deposition

9-34

9.4.4 

Wet Etching and Cleaning

9-36

9.4.5 

Photoresist Processing

9-38

9.4.6 

Inspection/Repair

9-40

9.4.7 

Total Equipment Market

9-42

9.5

Materials Market Forecast

9-46

 

 

 

 

LIST OF FIGURES

 

 

 

 

6.1 

SMIF Concept

6-14

6.2 

Amorphous Silicon AM Fabrication Process

6-18

6.3 

AMLCD Cross Section

6-19

6.4 

Polysilicon AM Fabrication Process

6-30

6.5 

Twisted Nematic LCD

6-38

7.1 

Schematic of Step-and-Repeat Aligner

7-5

7.2 

Schematic of Hot-Wall LPCVD Reactors

7-10

7.3 

Schematic of PECVD Techniques

7-12

7.4 

Diagram of Magnetron Sputtering Source

7-14

7.5 

Diagram of Rapid Thermal Processor

7-16

8.1 

Light-Emitting Polymer Structure

8-16

8.2 

LEP Structure Cross Section

8-18

8.3 

Ink-Jet Printing Of Lep Structure

8-23

9.1 

Worldwide Large Panel Display Market Forecast

9-18

9.2 

Worldwide LCD PC Monitor Market Forecast

9-19

9.3 

North American LCD TV Market Forecast

9-21

9.4 North American Plasma TV Market Forecast 9-22
9.5 Production Lines in Operation By Generation 9-31
9.6 Worldwide AMLCD Equipment Market Growth 9-45
9.7 Worldwide Large Area LCD Glass Consumption By Generation 9-48
9.8 Worldwide Large Area LCD Glass Consumption By Region 9-49

 

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

 

 

 

 

6.1 

USDC Manufacturer and Developer Members

6-5

6.2 

Causes of Defects in TFT LCD Manufacturing

6-12

6.3 

Comparison of Various Passive Matrix LCDs

6-35

7.1 

Common Wafer Processing Chemicals

7-20

7.2 

Photoresist Stripping Solutions

7-22

7.3 

Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Cleaning Methods

7-25

8.1 

Manufacturing Facilities

8-6

8.2 

Desired Nematic LC Material Characteristics

8-11

8.3 

Performance Of LEPs

8-21

8.4 

Characteristics of Aligning Materials

8-27

8.5 

Characteristics of Color Filter Methods

8-30

9.1

Worldwide Mobile Phone Display Market Forecast

9-16

9.2 

Worldwide LCD Display Market Forecast

9-19

9.3 

Worldwide AMLCD Stepper/Scanner Market Forecast

9-30

9.4 

Worldwide Market Forecast of AMLCD Plasma Etching Systems

9-33

9.5 

Forecast of Worldwide AMLCD Thin Film Deposition Equipment Market

9-35

9.6 

Forecast of Worldwide AMLCD Wet Etching and Cleaning Equipment Market

9-37

9.7 

Forecast of Worldwide AMLCD Photoresist Processing Equipment Market

9-39

9.8 

Forecast of Worldwide AMLCD Inspection/Repair Equipment Market

9-41

9.9 

Forecast of Worldwide AMLCD Equipment Market

9-44