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Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) and Replacement Markets: Insight for End Users and Material and Equipment Suppliers

 

 

 

Table of Contents

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1

Introduction

1-1

 

 

 

Chapter 2

ITO and Its Replacements Preparation and Characterization

2-1

2.1

Introduction

2-1

2.2

Supply and Demand of Indium

2-4

2.2.1

Indium Production

2-11

2.2.2

Indium Price Evolution

2-15

2.3

Transparent Conducting Oxides

2-16

2.3.1

Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)

2-19

2.3.2

Coated ITO

2-20

2.3.3

Zinc Oxide

2-20

2.3.4

Indium Zinc Oxide (IZO)

2-25

2.3.5

Aluminum-Doped Zinc Oxide (AZO)

2-26

2.3.6

Tin Oxide

2-28

2.4

Transparent Conductive Polymers

2-29

2.4.1

Overview

2-29

2.4.2

Applications

2-31

2.4.3

Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)

2-33

2.4.4

Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) PEDOT: Poly(styrene sulfonate) PSS

2-33

2.4.5

Poly(4,4-dioctylcyclopentadithiophene)

2-34

2.5

Carbon Nanotubes and Nanomaterials

2-35

2.5.1

Advantages

2-38

2.5.2

Preparation of CNT thin films

2-39

2.5.3

Comparing CNTs to TCOs

2-42

2.6

Wire

2-43

2.6.1

Ag Wire

2-45

2.6.2

AG Wire Ink

2-45

2.7

Toxicity Issues

2-46

 

 

 

Chapter 3

Deposition Methods And Equipment

3-1

 

 

 

3.1

Introduction

3-1

3.2

PVD

3-15

3.3

Laser ablation

3-16

3.4

Electric-arc Discharge

2-17

3.5

CVD

3-18

3.6

MOCVD

3-22

3.7

Spray Pyrolysis

3-23

3.8

Pulsed Laser Deposition

3-24

3.9

Reactive PVD

3-26

3.10

Inkjet

3-26

 

 

 

Chapter 4

Applications

4-1

 

 

 

4.1

Introduction

4-1

4.2

Flexible Displays

4-1

4.2.1

ITO-Coated Plastic

4-2

4.2.2

Flexible Alternatives to Plastic

4-3

4.2.3

E-Paper and ITO Alternatives

4-4

4.3

Flat-Panel Displays

4-8

4.3.1

LCD Displays

4-8

4.3.2

Plasma Displays

4-10

4.3.3

OLED Displays

4-12

4.4

Lighting

4-15

4.4.1

OLED Lighting and ITO

4-15

4.4.2

EL Lighting

4-18

4.5

Photovoltaics

4-19

4.5.1

Thin-Film Silicon PV

4-23

4.5.2

Crystalline PV

4-27

4.5.3

Organic PV

4-28

4.6

Touch-Screen Displays

4-29

4.6.1

ITO and Resistive Touch Screens

4-29

4.6.2

ITO and Capacitive Touch Screens

4-32

 

 

 

Chapter 5

Market Forecast

5-1

 

 

 

5.1

Introduction

5-1

5.2

Driving Forces

5-2

5.3

Forecasts by Application

5-3

5.3.1

Flexible Displays

5-9

5.3.2

Flat-Panel Displays

5-12

5.3.3

Lighting

5-14

5.3.4

Photovoltaics

5-17

5.3.5

Touch-Screen Displays

5-19

 

 

 

Chapter 6

Company Profiles

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

 

2.1

Indium: World Refinery Production, Reserves and Reserve Base

2-14

2.2

Properties Of Conductive Oxides

2-28

2.3

Properties Of Conductive Polymers

2-31

2.4

Properties Of Silver Electrode Materials

2-45

3.1

Results Of Various TCO Deposition Method

3-2

5.1

Forecast Of ITO Targets And Substitutes

5-6

5.2

Forecast Of Transparent Electrodes For Flexible Displays

5-10

5.3

Forecast Of Transparent Electrodes For Flat Panel Displays

5-13

5.4

Forecast Of Transparent Electrodes For Lighting

5-16

5.5

Forecast Of Transparent Electrodes For Photovoltaics

5-18

5.6

Forecast Of Transparent Electrodes For Touch- Screen Displays

5-20

 

LIST OF FIGURES

 

2.1

Price of Indium

2-16

2.2

Properties of ITO/AZO Structure

2-26

2.3

Panel Structure of Electronic Paper

2-33

2.4

Schematic of Dip Coating

2-41

2.5

Schematic of Slot Die Coating

2-41

2.6

Schematic of Gravure Coating

2-42

3.1

Schematic of Laser Ablation

3-17

3.2

Schematic of Electric Arc Discharge

3-17

3.3

Schematic of CVD

3-19

3.4

Schematic of MOCVD

3-22

3.5

Schematic of Spray Pyrolysis

3-23

3.6

Schematic of Pulsed Laser Deposition

3-25

3.7

Schematic of Reactive PVD

3-26

4.1

Schematic of Elecrysta Film

4-3

4.2

Panel Structure of Electronic Paper

4-5

4.3

Chemical Structures of Pedot/PSS

4-7

4.4

Flexible E-Paper

4-8

4.5

ITO Pixel In TFT Panel

4-9

4.6

ITO Electrode on TFT Panel

4-10

4.7

ITO Electrode on Plasma Display

4-12

4.8

Schematic of OLED Display

4-14

4.9

Schematic of OLED Lighting

4-17

4.10

Schematic of OLED Lighting

4-18

4.11

Schematic of EL Lighting

4-19

4.12

Comparison of TCO Features For PV

4-21

4.13

Comparison of AZO And Ito Features For PV

4-22

4.14

Comparison of TCO On CIGS

4-24

4.15

Schematic of Amorphous Silicon PV

4-25

4.16

Schematic of Crystalline PV

4-28

4.17

Organic PV With Silver Wires

4-29

4.18

ITO on Resistive Touch Screen

4-31

4.19

ITO on Capacitive Touch Screen

4-33

5.1

ITO Target Market Forecast

5-4

5.2

ITO Target Shares By Geographic Region

5-7

5.3

ITO as Percentage of Transparent Conductor Market

5-8