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CMP Technology:

Competition, Products, Markets

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Chapter 1

Introduction 

1-1

 

 

 

Chapter 2 

Executive Summary

2-1

 

 

 

2.1

Introduction

2-1

2.2

Market Opportunities

2-9

 

 

 

Chapter 3 

Planarization Methods

3-1

 

 

 

3.1

Need for Planarity

3-1

3.1.1

Lithography

3-4

3.1.2

Deposition

3-6

3.1.3

Etching

3-9

3.2

Applications

3-10

3.2.1

Dielectrics

3-10

3.2.2

Metals

3-13

3.3

Planarization Techniques

3-15

3.3.1

Local Planarization

3-15

3.3.1.1 

Deposition-Etchback

3-15

3.3.1.2 

ECR

3-17

3.3.1.3 

Oxide Reflow

3-17

3.3.1.4 

Spin-on-Glass

3-18

3.3.1.5 

TEOS-Ozone

3-18

3.3.1.6 

Laser

3-19

3.3.2

Global Planarization

3-20

3.3.2.1 

Spin-On Polymer

3-20

3.3.2.2 

Polyimide Coating

3-22

3.3.2.3 

Isotropic Etch

3-22

3.3.2.4 

Spin Etch Planarization

3-23

3.3.2.5

Electropolishing

3-24

3.4

CMP

3-26

3.4.1

Background

3-31

3.4.2

Research Efforts

3-32

3.4.3

Advantages and Disadvantages

3-33

3.4.4

Process Parameters

3-35

3.4.4.1 

STI Planarization

3-36

3.4.4.2 

Copper CMP

3-41

3.4.4.3 

Low-K Integration

3-55

3.4.4.4 

Defect Density

3-67

3.4.4.5 

Metrology

3-69

3.4.5

Device Processing Parameters

3-83

3.4.5.1 

Memory Devices

3-83

3.4.5.2 

Logic Devices

3-84

 

 

 

Chapter 4 

CMP Consumables

4-1

 

 

 

4.1

Slurries

4-1

4.1.1

Types

4-1

4.1.2

pH Effects

4-7

4.1.3

Oxidizers

4-10

4.1.4

Particle Morphology Effects

4-11

4.1.5

Chemical Distribution Management

4-13

4.1.6

Slurry Supplier Profiles

4-20

4.2

Post-CMP Clean

4-42

4.3

Polishing Pads

4-48

4.3.1

Types

4-48

4.3.2

Performance

4-49

4.3.3

Slurryless Pads

4-53

 

 

 

Chapter 5 

CMP Equipment

5-1

 

 

 

5.1

Single-Head Approach

5-1

5.1.1

Advantages

5-1

5.1.2

Disadvantages

5-3

5.2

Multi-Head Approach

5-4

5.2.1

Advantages

5-4

5.2.2

Disadvantages

5-5

5.3

Equipment Profiles

5-6

5.3.1

Applied Materials

5-7

5.3.2

Ebara

5-8

5.3.3

R. Howard Strasbaugh

5-9

5.3.4

Lam Research

5-10

5.3.5

SpeedFam-IPEC

5-11

5.3.6

Peter Wolters

5-14

5.3.7

Other Entrants

5-15

5.4

Clustered Tools

5-17

 

 

 

Chapter 6

User Issues

6-1

 

 

 

6.1

Cost of Ownership

6-1

6.2

User Requirements

6-7

6.3

Benchmarking a Vendor

6-10

6.3.1

Pricing

6-10

6.3.2

Vendor Commitment and Attitudes

6-12

6.3.3

Vendor Capabilities

6-13

6.3.4

System Capabilities

6-15

6.4

User-Supplier Synergy

6-16

6.4.1

Feedback During Equipment Evaluation

6-16

6.4.2

Feedback During Device Production

6-17

6.5

Reliability

6-18

6.6

Equipment Maintainability

6-19

 

 

 

Chapter 7 

Market Forecast

7-1

 

 

 

7.1

Introduction

7-1

7.2

Market Forecast Assumptions

7-5

7.3

Equipment Market

7-6

7.3.1

Introduction

7-6

7.3.2

CMP Polisher Market

7-7

7.3.3

End-Point Detector Market

7-10

7.3.4

Chemical Distribution/Mixing Market

7-12

7.3.5

Film Thickness/Metrology Market

7-14

7.4

Consumable Market

7-16

7.4.1

Slurry

7-20

7.4.2

Pads

7-22

 

 

 

 

LIST OF FIGURES

 

 

 

 

1.1

Process Integration for CMP

1-2

3.1

Planarization Lengths of Various Methods

3-16

3.2

Normalized Removal Rates

3-27

3.3

Reduced Complexity With Copper

3-43

3.4

Copper Loss From CMP

3-48

3.5

CMP Copper Process Technologies

3-50

3.6

CMP Performance Improvements

3-52

3.7

Polish Endpoint Control

3-81

4.1

Effect of Nitrate Ions on the Cu Removal Rate

4-8

4.2

Removal Rate of Ta

4-9

4.3

Bulk Chemical Distribution System

4-16

4.4

Through The Brush Chemical Delivery

4-43

4.5

Megasonics Post-CMP Clean

4-45

4.6

Micrograph Of 3M Slurryless Pad

4-54

6.1

Effect of Tool MTBF on CMP Cost

6-5

6.2

Removal Rate Vs Throughput and CMP Cost

6-6

 

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

 

 

 

 

3.1

Levels of Integration of Dynamic Rams

3-2

3.2

Interconnect Levels of Logic Device

3-3

3.3

Typical Process Specifications

3-11

3.4

Organic Polymers for IMD Applications

3-21

3.5

CMP Process Variables

3-29

3.6

Optimized CMP and Post-CMP Clean Parameters

3-37

3.7

Interconnect Materials by Segment

3-46

4.1

CMP Chemical Consumption

4-14

4.2

CMP Chemical Costs

4-18

4.3

Oxide CMP Pad Properties and Performance

4-50

6.1

Polisher Equipment Targets

6-8

6.2

Post-CMP Clean Equipment Targets

6-9

7.1

Worldwide CMP Polisher Market

7-7

7.2

Worldwide CMP Polisher Market Shares

7-9

7.3

Worldwide End-Point Detector Market

7-11

7.4

Worldwide Chemical Distribution/Mixing Market

7-13

7.5

Worldwide Film Thickness/Metrology Market

7-15

7.6

Worldwide CMP Slurry Market

7-17

7.7

Worldwide Slurry Market Shares

7-19

7.8

Worldwide CMP Pad Market

7-23