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Chemicals And Materials For

Sub-100 nm IC Manufacturing

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Chapter 1

Introduction

1-1

 

 

 

Chapter 2

Executive Summary

2-1

 

 

 

2.1

Key Industry Trends

2-1

2.2

Market Outlook

2-4

2.3

Supplier Opportunities

2-6

 

 

 

Chapter 3

IC Industry Trends

3-1

 

 

 

3.1

IC Industry Growth Forecast

3-1

3.2

Trends in IC Processing Technology

3-5

 

 

 

Chapter 4

Liquid Chemicals

4-1

 

 

 

4.1

Technology Issues

4-1

4.1.1

Acids and Solvents

4-1

4.1.2

Resists

4-6

4.2

Purity Requirements

4-20

4.2.1

Purification Methods

4-20

o

Trends For Purity - Trace Elements

4-20

4.2.2

Particulates

4-21

o

Effects on Yield

4-21

o

Particulate Removal Techniques

4-26

o

Particle Monitoring

4-27

4.3

Chemical Management

4-28

 

 

 

Chapter 5

Gases

5-1

 

 

 

5.1

Technology Issues

5-1

5.2

Requirements

5-3

5.2.1

Purification Methods

5-3

o

Historical Perspective

5-3

o

Trends For Purity - Consistency

5-4

5.2.2

Particulate Considerations

5-6

o

Particle Monitoring

5-6

o

Filtration Methods

5-8

5.2.3

Summary

5-9

5.3

Chemical Management

5-10

 

 

 

Chapter 6

Sputtering and Evaporation Materials

6-1

 

 

 

6.1

Technology Issues

6-1

6.2

Purity Requirements

6-8

 

 

 

Chapter 7

Chemical Dispensing Practices

7-1

 

 

 

7.1

Vendor Delivery Alternatives

7-1

7.1.1

Bottles

7-1

o

Glass & Polyethylene

7-1

7.1.2

Bulk Chemical Delivery

7-3

7.2

Point-of-Use Chemical Generation

7-5

7.3

Chemical Management Services

7-8

7.3.1

Introduction

7-8

7.3.2

Process Initiation

7-14

7.3.3

CMS Supplier Responsibilities

7-16

7.3.4

Improved Chemical Use

7-17

7.3.5

JIT Inventory Management

7-17

7.3.6

Environmental Services

7-19

7.3.7

Optimized Chemical Delivery

7-20

7.3.8

Reprocessor Management

7-21

7.3.9

Cost/Benefits

7-21

7.3.10

Trends

7-22

 

 

 

Chapter 8

Market Forecast

8-1

 

 

 

8.1

Market Driving Forces & Assumptions

8-1

8.2

Chemicals and Materials Forecast

8-3

8.2.1

Forecast By Chemical and Material

8-3

8.2.2

Chemical Use Per Unit Area Of Silicon Processed

8-29

8.2.3

Market Shares

8-31

8.2.4

NF3 Market Analysis

8-39

o

NF3 Market Forecast

8-39

o

NF3 Capacity Forecast

8-43

 

 

 

Chapter 9

Strategic Customer Issues

9-1

 

 

 

9.1

Benchmarking a Vendor

9-1

9.1.1

Statistical Quality Control

9-1

o

Assay and Related Items

9-3

o

Trace Elements

9-4

o

Particles

9-5

9.1.2

Analytical Capabilities

9-6

9.1.3

Product Manufacturing and/or Sourcing

9-8

o

Hydrofluoric Acid

9-9 

o

Sulfuric Acid

9-12

o

Hydrogen Peroxide

9-13

o

Acetic Acid

9-13

o

Nitric Acid

9-14

o

Ammonium Hydroxide

9-14

o

Phosphoric Acid

9-14

o

Solvents

9-15

9.14

General Considerations

9-15

o

Installation and Retrofitting Costs

9-15

9.2

In-House Quality Control And Assurance

9-18

9.2.1

Analytical Tools

9-18

9.2.2

How Much Testing

9-20

 

 

 

 

LIST OF FIGURES

 

 

 

 

3.1

Minimum Feature Size for Dynamic RAMs With Time

3-6

4.1

Relationship Between Device Yield and Particles

4-23

4.2

Relationship Between Die Yield and Chip Size

4-24

4.3

Chemical Management Services Tasks

4-29

6.1

ITRS Roadmap

6-3

8.1

Chemical/Semiconductor Revenue Ratio

8-11

8.2

Worldwide Resist Market

8-13

8.3

Worldwide Resist Market by Geographic Region

8-14

8.4

Resist/Semiconductor Revenue Ratio

8-15

8.5

Worldwide Resist Ancillary Market

8-21

8.6

Silicon Wafer Market

8-27

8.7

Silicon Wafer Market

8-28

8.8

Cost of Chemicals Per Square Inch of Silicon

8-32

8.9

Worldwide Market Shares for Gas Suppliers

8-34

8.10

Worldwide Market Shares for Liquid Chemical Suppliers

8-35

8.11

Worldwide Market Shares for Photoresist Suppliers

8-36

8.12

Worldwide Market Shares for Silicon Wafer Companies

8-38

 

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

 

 

 

 

3.1

Interconnect Levels Of Logic Device

3-7

4.1

Common Wafer Processing Chemicals

4-2

4.2

Photoresist Stripping Solutions

4-14

4.3

Wet Stripping Systems

4-18

5.1

Gas Control System Issues

5-2

5.2

Potential Hazards of Processing Gases

5-7

7.1

Worldwide Growth of CMS

7-12

7.2

Cost of Ownership of CMS

7-24

8.1

Worldwide Forecast of Chemicals and Materials for IC Manufacture

8-4

8.2

Worldwide Liquid Chemical Market by Chemical

8-7

8.3

U.S. Resist and Ancillary Market

8-17

8.4

Worldwide Market Forecast of Si Wafers

8-25

8.5

Worldwide Market Forecast of Sputtering Targets

8-30

8.6

Worldwide NF3 Market Forecast

8-40

8.7

Worldwide NF3 Capacity

8-44