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450mm/Copper/Low-K Convergence: Timing, Trends, Issues, Market Analysis

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Chapter 1

Introduction 

1-1

 

 

 

Chapter 2

Executive Summary

2-1

 

 

 

2.1

Summary of Technical Issues

2-1

2.2

Summary of Market Forecasts

2-10

 

 

 

Chapter 3

300mm Wafer Issues and Trends

3-1

 

 

 

3.1

Introduction

3-1

3.2

Industry Consortia

3-4

3.2.1

International Sematech

3-4

3.2.2

SEMI

3-5

3.2.3

SELETE

3-6

3.2.4

J300

3-10

3.2.5

SEA

3-11

3.2.6

MEDEA

3-12

3.3

Benefits of 300mm Wafers

3-13

3.4

Impact on Small IC Manufacturers

3-15

3.5

Impact on ASIC Manufacturers

3-16

3.6

Costs

3-17

3.6.1

Cost Breakdown

3-19

3.6.2

Requirements For IC Manufacturers

3-22

3.7

Impact on Automation

3-23

3.7.1

Software

3-28

3.7.2

Minienvironments

3-31

3.7.3

Robots

3-33

3.7.4

Cluster Tools

3-34

3.8

IC Manufacturers' Fab Plans

3-37

3.9

Summary

3-59

3.9.1

Advantages/Disadvantages of 300mm Fabs

3-59

3.9.2

Delays in 300mm Transition

3-60

 

 

 

Chapter 4

Copper Issues and Trends

4-1

 

 

 

4.1

Advantages of Copper

4-1

4.2

Copper Processing Challenges

4-7

4.3

Metal Deposition

4-9

4.4

Barriers

4-9

4.5

Planarization

4-11

4.6

Electroplating

4-13

4.7

Metrology

4-16

4.8

Competing against Aluminum Damascene

4-21

4.9

Equipment Suppliers' Copper Electroplating Products

4-23

4.10

IC Manufacturers' Copper Plans

4-38

4.11

Summary

4-50

4.11.1

 Advantages/Disadvantages of Cu

4-52

4.11.2

 Processing Issues

4-53

4.11.3

 IC Company Copper Plans

4-61

4.11.4

 Challenges

4-64

 

 

 

Chapter 5

Low-K Dielectric Issues and Trends

5-1

 

 

 

5.1

Introduction

5-1

5.2

Ideal Dielectric

5-2

5.3

Types of Low-K Dielectrics

5-5

5.3.1

FSG

5-5

5.3.2

HSQ

5-7

5.3.3

Nanoporous Silica

5-8

5.3.4

Spin-on Polymers

5-9

5.3.5

BCB

5-15

5.3.6

Flowfill

5-15

5.3.7

CVD

5-16

5.3.8

AF4

5-18

5.3.9

PTFE

5-19

5.4

Processing Issues

5-20

5.5

Summary

5-31

5.5.1

Integration Issues

5-31

5.5.2

Low-K Dielectric Issues

5-32

 

 

 

Chapter 6

Market Analysis

6-1

 

 

 

6.1

Semiconductor Market

6-1

6.2

Road to Recovery

6-4

6.3

Market Forecast Assumptions

6-15

6.4

300mm Wafer Market

6-16

6.5

300mm Equipment Market

6-20

6.5.1

300mm Equipment Tools

6-20

6.5.2

Factory Automation in 300mm Fab Market

6-23

6.6

Copper Processing Equipment Market

6-27

6.7

Low-K Market

6-37

6.8

Summary

6-43

 

 

 

 

TABLES

 

 

 

 

1.1

Planned 300mm Fab Construction

1-2

3.1

Increase in Wafer Sizes

3-2

3.2

Cost of 300mm Fab

3-21

3.3

300mm Fab Construction Plans

3-39

4.1

IC Company Copper Plans

4-62

5.1

Low-K Material Requirements

5-4

5.2

Low-K Materials

5-6

6.1

Worldwide Market Forecast of Si Wafers

6-17

6.2

Worldwide Market Forecast of 300mm Equipment

6-21

6.3

Process Tool Automation For 300mm Fabs

6-24

6.4

Worldwide Forecast of Automation Transfer Tools

6-25

6.5

Interconnect Technology Requirements

6-28

6.6

Worldwide Forecast of Copper Processing Equipment

6-30

6.7

Worldwide Forecast of Low-K Market

6-38

 

 

 

 

FIGURES

 

 

 

 

3.1

Selete’s Program Results

3-7

3.2

Increase in IC Size With Time

3-14

3.3

300mm and 200mm Fab Cost Comparison

3-20

3.4

300mm Fabs by Cost

3-40

3.5

300mm Fabs by Capacity

3-41

3.6

300mm Fabs by Country

3-42

4.1

Reduced Complexity of Copper Interconnect

4-4

4.2

Interconnect Delay for Copper

4-6

4.3

Cu Planarization Process

4-12

4.4

Damascus Complete Copper

4-27

4.5

Copper/Low-K Interconnect Schemes

4-33

4.6

Copper And Low-K Integration Concerns

4-65

5.1

Interconnect Delay for Copper/Low-K

5-3

6.1

300mm Wafer Market As Percentage of Total Market

6-18

6.2

Electrochemical Deposition Market Shares - Revenues

6-31

6.3

Electrochemical Deposition Market Shares - Units

6-32

6.4

Copper Implementation By Geographic Region

6-34

6.5

Copper Implementation By Feature Size

6-35

6.6

Low-K Deposition Market Shares

6-42